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2021/11/19 The 9th International Workshop on Decentralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Asia


In developing countries, the construction of sewerage systems with pipe networks has been delayed due to various obstacle factors such as the shortage of finance and rapid expansion of cities, and, therefore, the appropriate wastewater treatment services are often not available even in the urban areas. The decentralized domestic wastewater treatment facilities with the high treatment performance, such as Johkasou, are expected to play a valuable role in compensating for the delays in sewerage system development. In Japan, in some cases, the Johkasou system is applied for public works projects according to the Johkasou Act instead of the centralized wastewater treatment systems (sewerage system) to improve the water quality of public water bodies in sub-urban and rural areas.

In any decentralized wastewater treatment system such as septic tanks or Johkasou, fecal sludge is also always generated through the process of treating wastewater. This means wastewater management requires fecal sludge management (which includes the collection, treatment, disposal, reuse, etc. associated with wastewater management), as two sides of the same coin. In addition, wastewater management and fecal sludge management (FSM) cannot be implemented without an appropriate legal framework which can set up a fee collection system, incentives for private companies, a monitoring system, operation and maintenance system, or other measures. However, it is particularly difficult to install a reasonable tariff mechanism in some countries because of economical reason (for household accounting), or existing habits (in addition to the low willingness to pay for wastewater or FSM). Therefore, is it not one of the most appropriate options to consider wastewater management and FSM as public works projects to be implemented under the responsibility of the central / local governments (administrators), to achieve sustainability?

In this workshop, the main issues related to FSM will be sorted out and raised through the review of case studies from several countries. Several administrative responses that can be taken to achieve appropriate FSM for sustainable decentralized wastewater management will be presented and discussed. Governmental officials, administrative officials, related organizations' officials, and researchers of Asian countries are expected to participate in this workshop.



The 9th Workshop on

Decentralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Asia

           Date:  30  November, 2021

           Time: 15:00 ~ 18:00 (Japan time)

           Language: English / Japanese 
           Organizer:  Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan



Participant Guide  


Moderator: Dr. Pierre Flamand

                   Manager - international affairs, Japan Sanitation Consortium




 Opening Remarks

Mr. Yasuo Yamamoto


Director, Office for Promotion of Johkasou, Waste Management Division, Environmental Regeneration and Material Cycles Bureau, MOEJ



Mr. Kazushi Hashimoto


Adviser, Japan Sanitation Consortium (JSC),

Consultant, Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI)


Speaker's related Publication


Hashimoto, Kazushi. "Institutional Frameworks for Onsite Sanitation Management Systems." (2021).


  Session A 

  Sustainable Decentralized Wastewater Management

In this session, MOEJ will introduce a case study from Japan in which decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems are sometimes installed as public works projects similarly to sewerage system (A-1), and Prof. Fan Bin from Chinese Academy of Science, will share information on Johkasou projects adopting a PPP (Public Private Partnership) scheme in China (A-2).


Development of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Facilities as Public Works
~Case Study from Japan~

Ms. Rio Oowada

Section Chief, Office for Promotion of Johkasou, Waste Management Division, Environmental Regeneration and Material Cycles Bureau, MOEJ



Applying a PPP Scheme to a Johkasou Installation Project in Changshu City

~Case study from China~ 

Professor Fan Bin 

Professor, Vice Director, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences


Speaker's related Publication

(NEW! 2022/5/30)


(1) Challenges and Solutions for On-Site Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas: Case Study of Chongming, Shanghai, People's Republic of China


(2) Public-Private Partnerships for Wastewater Treatment in Rural Areas: Case Study of Changshu, People's Republic of China

   Discussion and Q&A

     :What are the challenges in the financial matter, and the others?
     :What should be done as an administrative agency (central / local 

 Break (Video broadcast)


  Session B

  Sustainable Fecal Sludge Management 


Through case studies from Southeast Asia and India will be reviewed the current situation in a real context of fecal sludge management (FSM) in developing countries, and considered what should be prioritized or what kind of technologies are required to achieve sustainable FSM.


Toward the Establishment of Sustainable Faecal Sludge Management ~Lessons Learned from WEPA Partner Countries and Japan~ 

Dr. Pham Ngoc Bao

Deputy Director, Adaptation and Water, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)



Speaker's related publication


Bao, Pham Ngoc. "Toward the Establishment of Sustainable Faecal Sludge Management." (2021).


Fecal Sludge Management Business Models in India

Mr. Krishna C. Rao

Advisor Program and Management, Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Institute, India



Speaker's related publication


Rao, Krishna C., et al. Business models for fecal sludge management in India. International Water Management Institute (IWMI); CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE)., 2020.

 Discussion and Q&A

     : What are the challenges in changing of habit and thinking way, and the others?

     : What kind of administrative measures / regulations / policy are required?


Ms. Rio Oowada

Section Chief, Office for Promotion of Johkasou, Waste Management Division, Environmental Regeneration and Material Cycles Bureau, MOEJ


Supplimental material 


Rao, K.; Kvarnström, E.; Di Mario, L. (October 2016). Fecal Sludge management business models. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). 46p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 6). https://wle.cgiar.org/business-models-fecal-sludge-management


Rao, K.; Otoo, M.; Drechsel, P. and Hanjra, M.H 2017. Resource Recovery and Reuse as an incentive for a more viable sanitation service chain, Water Alternatives 10(2): 493-512; https://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol10/v10issue2/367-a10-2-17/file


Otoo, M.; Drechsel, P.; Danso G.; Gebrezabher, S.; Rao, K.; Madurangi, G. 2016. Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baselines surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). 59p. (Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10).



Series of publications on business cases and models on reuse from agro-industrial and domestic waste to recover energy, nutrient and water. Resource recovery from waste: Business models for energy, nutrients and water reuse. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI); London, UK: Earthscan. In press. https://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/publications/other-publication-types/books-monographs/iwmi-jointly-published/resource-recovery-from-waste/  



If you have any questions, please contact Secretariat (shirakawa@jeces.or.jp) via email.

The secretariat team will make all efforts to answer all questions in the designated period.

If your question is not able to be answered or requires extra details, the secretariat will reach out via email in the week following the webinar to help address your concerns. 



    Secretariat contact information

      Dr. Yurie Shirakawa


      Japan Education Center of Environmental Sanitation (JECES)

      Address: 2-23-3 Kikukawa, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0024, Japan

      E-mail: shirakawa@jeces.or.jp