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International Workshop on Decentralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Asia

MOEJ held the 9th Workshop on 30th November, 2021

The 9th workshop has been held by MOEJ successfully. 
Thank you very much for your participation.
We are pleased to receive your feedback. If you have any queries, questions, or suggestions, please contact the Secretariat of this Workshop, below.

Yurie Shirakawa
Senior Researcher, JECES


Appropriate Fecal Sludge Management for Sustainable Decentralized Wastewater Management

In any decentralized wastewater treatment system such as septic tanks or Johkasou, fecal sludge is also always generated through the process of treating wastewater. In addition, wastewater management and fecal sludge management (FSM) cannot be implemented without an appropriate legal framework which can set up a fee collection system, incentives for private companies, a monitoring system, operation and maintenance system, or other measures.
However, it is particularly difficult to install a reasonable tariff mechanism in some countries because of economical reason (for household accounting), or existing habits (in addition to the low willingness to pay for wastewater or FSM). wastewater management and FSM, implementing various public work as responsibility of central/local governments is the most important thing to achieve sustainability.


Date: 30th November, 2021

Time: 15:00~18:00 (Japan standard time)

Venue: Webinar via Zoom 

Language: English / Japanese (simultaneous interpretation)

Organizer: Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan (MOEJ)

Introduction of moderators

Dr. Pierre Flamand  
the Manager of International Affairs at the Japan Sanitation Consortium (JSC)

Pierre has over 15 years of experience in sanitation, with particular focus on fecal sludge management. Since joining JSC in 2009, he has been involved in sanitation projects in Viet Nam, Malaysia and Bhutan. He is the co-author of 'Sanitation and Sustainable Development in Japan' (2016). Since 2015, he has been involved in several Working Groups of ISO/TC 224 as an expert representing Japan for the creation of standards on on-site domestic wastewater systems and stormwater management in urban areas. 
He has in-depth knowledge on how the country has solved the severe sanitation issues in the 1960s, including the role played by the government in the enactment of policies, guidelines, and legal instruments for wastewater management.
Pierre holds a doctoral degree in regional development studies and is also a visiting researcher at Toyo University in Japan.

Material download

Keynote(2023-04-12 ・ 1526KB)

Mr. Kazushi Hashimoto

Adviser, Japan Sanitation Consortium (JSC)

Mr. Hashimoto shared information on the relationship between wastewater management and fecal sludge management, and the global trends.

A-1(2023-04-12 ・ 3196KB)

Ms. Rio Owada

Section Chief, Office for Promotion of Johkasou, Waste Management Division, Environmental Regeneration and Material Cycles Bureau, MOEJ

In this presentation was introduced the history and current situation of several subsidy programs such as the “Municipal Johkasou Installation Program” and the “Johkasou Installation Promotion Program” provided by MOEJ to promote the installation of Johkasou.
Issues about decentralized wastewater treatment facilities will be addressed, such as the septic tanks that treat only human waste (black water) while discharging non-fecal domestic wastewater (gray water) without treatment and, therefore, that have a large adverse effect on the water environment.
In many countries, the / central governments are working on the development of centralized wastewater treatment facilities (sewerage systems), which treat both gray and black water, as public works projects. Sewerage systems are economically advantageous in local densely populated urban areas where they can treat domestic wastewater efficiently. However, using the sewerage systems is not cost-effective in areas with low population density due to the high costs of plumbing works.
In areas with low population density, if the local / central governments work on the development of decentralized wastewater treatment systems as public works, is it not a way to provide high-quality wastewater treatment services to a wider area?
On the other hand, the purchase and installation of high-performance decentralized wastewater treatment facilities in developing countries (such as Johkasou, which can treat both gray water and black water and have the same treatment performance as sewerage facilities) for individual houses does not seem realistic because of the economic burden on the house hold.
In Japan also, a subsidy program has been introduced by the central / local governments to financially support the installation of Johkasou for individual houses.

A-2(2023-04-12 ・ 2028KB)

Dr. Fan Bin

Professor, Vice Director, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Generally, it is said that the implementation of public works with a PPP scheme is difficult in developing countries, and it has been reported that a sound legal and regulatory framework, and transparency regarding information disclosure and the decision-making process are essential conditions for the establishment of PPP projects.
Although China is not a developing country, the knowledge gained through the challenging efforts of applying PPP schemes to decentralized domestic wastewater treatment system is valuable and useful for other countries. and the success factors when deploying such a scheme outside of China.
In Changshu City, China, the local government provides a decentralized wastewater treatment service for the residents using Johkasous applying a PPP scheme. background of the PPP scheme utilization, planning / designing process of the administrative side through the feasibility study, the procurement flow (bid), and the benefit for the SPC (Special Purpose Company) / Changshu City.

B-1(2023-04-12 ・ 5371KB)

Dr. Pham Ngoc Bao
Deputy Director, Adaptation and Water, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)

In this presentation was introduced the current situation and issues faced in fecal sludge management and business model cases from the Philippines, Thailand, and Indonesia.
In addition, Japan's fecal sludge management system (with municipalities issuing a permit to desludging companies, and municipalities having night soil and Johkasou sludge treatment facilities under their responsibility, etc.) will be briefly explained.
The policy concept regulations or required for successful fecal sludge management 
systems will be introduced.

B-2(2023-04-12 ・ 1426KB)

Mr. Krishna C. Rao
Advisor Program and Management, Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Institute, India

In this presentation was introduced advanced cases of sludge management in India based on the discussion "Business models for fecal sludge management in India (IWMI, 2020)".
India has been working on the eradication of open defecation (Open Defecation Free (ODF)) under the Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission ) since 2014, is now actively working on FSM as ODF+ based on the experience from ODF.
Although there was no sludge treatment plant throughout India 10 years ago, currently several sludge treatment plants are being commissioned across states in India.
Such efforts to manage fecal sludge in India should provide useful information for other countries and an opportunity for Japanese companies and related organizations to learn about the recent trends in FSM around the world.
 Ex) States and towns in India have taken diverese approaches to address sludge management. In Wai Town, Maharashtra State, “sanitation tax” is collected from septic tank users, Odisha State has licensed private operators to provide demand based desludging on fee for services basis Newer approaches are emerging across India to provide FSM services through, public, private and PPP models.

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